Compiled By: Erika McGinty
From BackStory with the American History Guys | Part of the BackStory with the American History Guys Weekly Episodes series | 54:00
For many Americans, the storyline that played out on August 9th in Ferguson, Mo. — when an unarmed black teenager was fatally shot by a white police officer — is not a new one. But the sustained protests that followed, in which Ferguson police used military equipment to suppress peaceful protests, have generated a new round of questioning about local police’s role in their communities.
On this episode, BackStory looks at the history of policing in America, and how the police forces we’re familiar with today begin to take shape - and we'll consider what happens when the police don’t protect those they serve.
For many Americans, the storyline that played out on August 9th in Ferguson, Mo. — when an unarmed black teenager was fatally shot by a white police officer — is not a new one. But the sustained protests that followed, in which Ferguson police used military equipment to suppress peaceful protests, have generated a new round of questioning about local police’s role in their communities. On this episode, BackStory looks at the history of policing in America, and how the police forces we’re familiar with today begin to take shape - and we'll consider what happens when the police don’t protect those they serve.
From jrudolph group | 59:45
An audio history of the New York Police Department
Archival recordings and recent interviews are woven together in this hour-long documentary that tells the story of the New York Police Department from the 1940s to the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. From Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia's famous, "sock 'em in the jaw," speech to new police officers in 1942, to first-hand accounts of a 1964 Harlem riot in which the police fired thousands of rounds of live ammunition, to the gripping story of police officers running for their lives after the collapse of the World Trade Center towers, this program opens a window into the NYPD's fascinating history and the complex relationship between the police and the citizens of New York . With a score that includes music from cop shows like "Car 54 Where Are You" and clips from films including "Shaft" and "Serpico,? this program is a compelling examination of the one of the world's leading leading law enforcement organizations before and after 9/11. Among the topics covered - corruption scandals, struggles by police officers to win union representation, and conflicts between the police and New York's African-American and immigrant communities. You'll hear the voices of cops over the decades - emotional, colorful and controversial - along with their critics, their supporters, and scholars who have studied the NYPD. "Stories from the NYPD" is the latest in a series of historical radio documentaries about New York City by award-winning independent producer John Rudolph. Earlier programs (produced with WNYC, New York Public Radio) focused on New York City's waterfront; the career of the late Daniel Patrick Moynihan; and the '60s civil rights movement in New York.
From Ben Markus | 05:09
The story of how beat cops cleaned up one of the most notorious housing projects in the nation
In response to rising crime rates, police departments nationwide are going back to basics, combining traditional patrol methods with an earlier "beat cop" approach. In Sacramento's Phoenix Park housing project the police faced quite a challenge. Even though the neighborhood was mired by gangs and drugs, they made an immediate, and lasting, impact on the shockingly violent project.
From Making Contact | 29:00
So-called ‘quality of life’ policing may temporarily decrease crime, but it has harsh consequences for innocent people caught up in the frenzy of arrests. If it’s illegal to be on a city’s sidewalks, parks and plazas, where else can people go?
Former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani made so-called ‘quality of life’ policing a worldwide trend. And while it may have temporarily decreased crime, there are harsh consequences for the thousands of innocent people caught up in the frenzy of arrests. On this edition, the criminalization of homelessness. If it’s illegal to be on a city’s sidewalks, parks and plazas, where else can people go?
Neil Smith, Center for Graduate Studies at the City University of New York Geography and Urbanism professor; Carlton Berkeley, Former NYPD Detective and author of ‘What to do if Stopped by the Police’; Genghis Kallid Muhammad, Gene Rice, Elise Lowe, Picture the Homeless members; Protestors opposing New York’s disorderly conduct law; Melvin Williams, Coalition for the Homeless volunteer; Rob Robinson, National Campaign to Restore housing Rights organizer; Barbara Daughtery, homeless New Yorker; Mark Schuylen, former urban planner; Samuel Warber, street musician; Andy Blue, ‘Sidewalks are for People” campaign organizer; George Gascon, San Francisco Police Chief; John Avalos, San Francisco Supervisor; Jen Vandergriff, San Francisco resident; Jason Lean, homeless San Franciscan; Paul Boden, Western Regional Advocacy Project organizer
Producer/Host: Andrew Stelzer
Producer: Kyung Jin Lee
Producer/Online Editor: Pauline Bartolone
Contributing Producer: Sam Lewis
Executive Director: Lisa Rudman
Associate Director: Khanh Pham
Community Engagement and Volunteer Coordinator: Karl Jagbandhansingh
Station Relations: Daphne Young
Life of the Law (Series)
Produced by Life of the Law
Most recent piece in this series:
Kate, who’s asked me not to use her last name, signed up for Facebook in her freshman year of college, as soon as she got her university email address. This was in 2004 when Facebook required one. She had it for only three or four months when she started getting unsettling emails and Facebook
“Facebook was, I think as some of us remember, was not – it had no privacy settings,” she says.
These messages were from strangers. They were calling her sexy, making comments about her body and her appearance, they were propositioning her for sex, and many of them were asking where she lived.
One day, she Googled herself.
“I had discovered at some point that some of my photos and my name had made their way onto another website,” she says. “It was like a forum used for rating girls looks.”
It turned out that someone had lifted photos off her Facebook page and posted them to this site. Commenters would argue back and forth about whether or not she was fat, and whether or not they’d have sex with her. The posting included her full name and linked back to her Facebook profile.
“At that point, there was like no real, reasonable way to be able to take them down,” she says. “I had to contact the web host owner and the domain owner actually found it kind of funny.”
They were mostly candid photos. Her with her friends, one or two from Halloween. A lot of them were taken in her dorm. And in addition to the comments on the website, Kate kept getting messages. Some were simply annoying but many were much worse.
“I was probably only 19 when that happened, and it was extremely scary,” she said.
She remembers about one especially bad message.
“So, uh, what actually had happened is one of these people who had sent me a very sexually harassing message, detailing lots of graphic things that they want to do to me and it was really terrifying.”
At one point, the guy described wanting to force her to perform oral sex on him until she puked.
Then, two days later, she was walking back to her dorm from the school store. It was the middle of winter.
“A snowball hits me in the back of the head. And I turn around, and it’s that guy who had been sending me these messages,” she says. “It looks like he went to my school, or he at least had enough information to at least figure out what school I went to or even where I lived. And that was pretty terrifying, I just took off after that.”
She ran back to her dorm in the ice and snow and spent the next several months terrified that she would see him on campus again. She never did. And eventually the messages tapered off. But after a few months the same photos kept popping up on other websites.
They’d show up on MySpace or LiveJournal, or people would create fake accounts on dating websites like OkCupid using her photos. Often, they didn’t use her full name, so it got harder for her to track them down. But her friends that used these sites would come across them and tip her off.
“I am 28 and it has continued for almost a decade.”
This same thing still happens to her every few months, with the same photos from college. They crop up, and then Kate has to go through the whole process of trying to get them down again. It’s kind of like whack-a-mole. Except there’s actually a term for it.
This is called doxing.
“People know now that it’s something that you can automatically do – like, I don’t like them? Post their information to 4chan and watch the hell begin.”
Doxing is when someone researches you, finds out things like your full name and street address, and posts them in an open forum online. A lot of times, they’ll be matched up to a photo. The term comes from the slang “dropping dox.” “Dox” is short for documents. The term was coined by hackers in the ‘90’s, and it basically meant dropping someone’s “documents,” meaning personal information, onto an online forum. It was meant as a way to get revenge.
So if this happens to you, what do you do?
When it happened to Amanda Hess, a staff writer at Slate, she called 911.
“A police officer came to my hotel room where I was staying, and I explained the content of the threats to him and showed him on my phone and he looked at them and he said ‘What is Twitter?’”
Hess wrote about her experience in a magazine called Pacific Standard.
“I have heard from police officers who have read the story and said that they found it very interesting and some departments who have shared it with their officers, and so I do think that training could really help,” she says. “But of course, training is expensive and local police forces don’t have a lot of money.”
Hess says, perhaps the burden of regulating harassment should land on someone else.
“Tech companies, have all of the money in the world,” she says. “So that is why I think activists have really focused on them and hounded them to find some sort of solution to help at least mitigate the effects of those crimes.”
But there’s a bigger problem. As more of our real lives become integrated with the internet – our jobs, our social lives, even our love lives – so too does our personal safety.
“Explaining to these people that you live your life on the internet as I basically do – it’s where I work, it’s where I talk to my friends – is difficult,” Hess says.
Ari Waldman is the Director of the Institute for Information Law and Policy at New York Law School. He says even lawyers have a hard time understanding the implications of online harassment. That’s why he plans to open a legal clinic that would provide free legal representation for victims, and train lawyers to handle these types of cases.
Waldman explains, “Pictures of women have been posted online, they’ve been connected to addresses and that has resulted – their physical addresses – and that has resulted in physical harassment or stalking.”
Waldman also says there’s one type of doxing he’s seen more and more of in recent years: revenge porn. It’s when someone posts nude photos of another person without their consent. For instance, A jilted lover posts a picture of a young woman online next to her address and then posts a Craigslist ad saying, ‘I’m interested in rough sex.”
But Craigslist is not the only avenue for this type of doxing. In fact, there are whole websites dedicated to revenge porn. Hunter Mooreused to run one of the most notorious of these sites. It was a site called “Is Anyone Up?” It no longer exists.
In 2011, Moore appeared on Anderson Cooper 360. During the interview, Moore talked about he enjoyed profiting off of doxing, telling Anderson Cooper, “Why wouldn’t I? I get to look at naked pictures of women all day.”
However, when Moore posted photos of Charlotte Laws’ daughter on his website, Laws was furious. And when he would not take the photos down, Laws took action.
Laws who had once worked as a private investigator, started contacting Moore’s other victims and building a case. Laws remembers, “I was often the first person to tell them they were up there. They were freaked out .I felt like a suicide hotline.”
Eventually, Laws brought her big fat file on Moore to the FBI and got them to open up their own investigation. Eventually, Moore was charged with conspiracy, unauthorized access to a protected computer and aggravated identity theft. He’s plead not guilty to all counts, and will stand trial later this year.
Moore wasn’t charged specifically for the offense of revenge porn, because the US has no federal law against it — despite the fact that countries like Israel, Australia, France and The Philippines, do. In fact, the United States hasn’t passed a law to regulate the Internet since the 1990’s. Regulating the internet is not a popular idea. SOPA and PIPA, two proposed laws that sought to protect copyright holders, faced opposition from Google, Yahoo, Mozilla, Ebay and a slew of other internet giants. Both bills were shelved in 2012.Still, after her encounter with Moore, Laws advocated for a revenge porn law in California, and in 2013, it passed. There are 14 states with laws against revenge porn.
But here is still some controversy over those laws. Last year in Arizona, not long after the state passed a revenge porn law that prohibited posting nude images without the consent of the people pictured, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) sued the state. Dan Pochoda is the senior counsel of the ACLU of Arizona. He says the ACLU chose to sue because the law was too broad.
“It criminalizes the display, publication and sale of non-obscene images that are fully protected by the first amendment including artistic, historical and newsworthy images. A defendant can be convicted under the act if there was neither malicious intent nor harm done. A defendant can be convicted even if the person depicted had no expectation of privacy.”
In November, a judge put the law on hold so that the legislature can re-work its language. The ACLU is working with the legislature to do so because they do recognize that revenge porn is a crime.
But the fact remains that if you live in a state with no revenge porn law currently on the books, you are out of luck. Ari Waldman says if a state doesn’t have a revenge porn law, victims don’t have much legal standing to combat their harassers. Waldman says, “There have been many attempts to use old tort laws to try to address this problem. There’s harassment statues in various states, there are some laws that have been expanded to online usage, there are copyright laws.”
Copyright law is actually the most common defense in these situations. Asserting your ownership of content is now, in most cases, a quick way to get a website administrator to get rid of your photo. This is done under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, sometimes called the DMCA.
Kate, from earlier in the story, actually started a website called undox.me devoted to helping women get these images off the internet through the DMCA. But while the DMCA is useful in these cases, it was not meant to be used this way. The law, passed in 1998, was meant to protect copyrighted works like art and movies.
And while using the DMCA works in some cases, the process forces the victims to police their harassers. And going after them takes a lot of time. Amanda Hess remembers how she had to call several different law enforcement agencies to get one person to listen to her case. “It ended up taking days out of my work, especially when I was a freelancer, that meant that I wasn’t making money. And it all adds up to a kind of tax on me and on other women who are experiencing the same thing online.”
Editor: Ann Heppermann
Producer: Kaitlin Prest
Advisory Panel Scholar: Laura Beth Nielsen
Who gets to decide when an officer has done something wrong—the police chief or the people? Cities across the country are creating civilian oversight agencies which try to make local police and sheriffs accountable to the people.
Who polices the police? Do you or your neighbors have any say in the way your town’s cops and sheriffs do business? For more than 35 years, cities around the country have been creating civilian oversight agencies - trying to make local police and sheriffs accountable to the communities they serve. On this edition, producer Andrew Stelzer takes a look at the ongoing battle between the people and the police - and the debate over who gets to decide when an officer has done something wrong.
Barbara Attard, civilian oversight consultant, former San Francisco Office of Citizen Complaints investigator and former Berkeley Police Review Commission Director; Marcel Diallo, artist and victim of police harassment; Rashidah Grinage, PUEBLO Executive Director; Jason Wechter, San Francisco Office of Citizen Complaints investigator; Reginald Lyles, BART consultant and former Berkeley Police Officer; Gary Gee, BART Police Chief; Jesse Sekhon, BART Police Officers Association President; Quintin Mecke, California State Assemblyman Tom Ammiano’s Communications Director; Greg Kaufory, attorney; Omar Osirus, Jan, and Bo, protestors; Daniel Buford, Allen Temple Baptist Church Reverend; Joyce Hicks, San Francisco Office of Citizen Complaints Director and former Oakland’s Citizens Police Review Board Director; Patrick Cacares, Oakland Citizens Police Review Board acting director; Paulette Hogan, tasered Oakland resident who filed complaint with Internal Affairs; Chris Shannon, Oakland Police Lieutenant; Cephus Johnson, Oscar Grant’s uncle; Mark Kroeker, Portland Police Chief.
Program #32-09 - Begin date: 08/12/09. End date: 02/12/09.
Please call us if you carry us - 510-251-1332 and we will list your station on our website. If you excerpt, please credit early and often.
We take a look at the Police killing of Oscar Grant in Oakland, and the debate over who gets to decide when an officer has done something wrong.
Who polices the police? Do you or your neighbors have any say in the way your town’s cops and sheriffs do business? For more than 35 years, cities around the country have been creating civilian oversight agencies - trying to make local police and sheriffs accountable to the communities they serve.
On this edition we take a look at the Police killing of Oscar Grant in Oakland, and the debate over who gets to decide when an officer has done something wrong.
Barbara Attard, civilian oversight consultant, former San Francisco Office of Citizen Complaints investigator and former Berkeley Police Review Commission Director; Marcel Diallo, artist and victim of police harassment; Rashidah Grinage, PUEBLO Executive Director; Jason Wechter, National Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement Board Member; Reginald Lyles, BART consultant and former Berkeley Police Officer; Gary Gee, BART Police Chief; Jesse Sekhon, BART Police Officers Association President; Quintin Mecke, California State Assemblyman Tom Ammiano’s Communications Director; Greg Kaufory, attorney; Omar Osirus, Jan, and Bo, protestors; Daniel Buford, Allen Temple Baptist Church Reverend; Joyce Hicks, San Francisco Office of Citizen Complaints Director and former Oakland’s Citizens Police Review Board Director; Patrick Cacares, Oakland Citizens Police Review Board acting director; Paulette Hogan, tasered Oakland resident who filed complaint with Internal Affairs; Chris Shannon, Oakland Police Lieutenant; Cephus Johnson, Oscar Grant’s uncle; Mark Kroeker, Portland Police Chief;
From Dred-Scott Keyes | 01:00:13
The Cutting Edge looks at the causes and aftermath of the 1992 L.A. rebellion.
From Matt Thompson | 27:31
Why torture doesn't work. How to trick the enemy into revealing secrets. Lessons from the Master Interrogator of the Luftwaffe. The British Police use of empathy as a weapon. With Ali Soufan, ex FBI special agent and interrogator.
The Chinese strategist and philospher Sun Tzu wrote in 'The Art of War' that 'If you know others and know yourself you will win a hundred battles.' Which is obviously good advice but finding out about the 'other' is not straightforward. What if they don't want to talk and share their secrets with you?
Much of the debate about the interrogation of suspects in America's War on Terror has been about whether the methods used, such as waterboarding, could be described as torture. In this programme Julian Putkowski sets aside all moral questions and instead thinks about efficiency. What is the most effective way to extract high quality information out of the enemy, the other.
If we are civil to our captives might we get them to cooperate? What if we could get as much – or even more – information in exchange for a lot less pain?
Julian's unlikey role model is the Master Interrogator of the Luftwaffe Hanns Scharff. He gently extracted information from downed US fighter pilots by being friendly and never appearing to show interest when a new piece of the mosaic fell into place. Scharff summed it up as 'a display of information and persuasion appealing to common sense'.
We do not know for sure where the Scharff technique came from originally. But it may have been from a colourful German fighter ace, Franz von Werra. He had been downed and captured by the British and interrogated by the RAF. He had been expecting rough handling but found his captors were rather genial chaps and harsh treatment was the exception to the rule. He later escaped and made it back to Germany. One of his first trips was to Dulag Luft where he sat in on interrogations. He was horrified at how superficial, even farcical the interrogations were. He said: 'I would rather be interrogated by half a dozen German inquisitors than 1 RAF expert.' His recommendations were personally approved by Hermann Goering.
Julian interviews: Dr Gavin Oxburgh, at the University of Teeside, UK who is an international expert on police questioning.
Ali Soufan, an FBI special agent and author of 'The Black Banners.'
Claudius Scharff, Hanns son, who tells us about trips to the zoo and shows us a fascinating 'visitor's book' Hanns got the POW's to sign.
From BackStory with the American History Guys | Part of the BackStory with the American History Guys: Favorites series | 10:24
Brian Balogh speaks with former Senator Fred Harris about the commission convened by President Lyndon Johnson in the dark days of the 1967 Detroit riots, and their surprising conclusions about police and protesters