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Playlist: POLICING

Compiled By: Erika McGinty

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POLICING

65: Serve and Protect? A History of the Police, 9/20/2014

From BackStory with the American History Guys | Part of the BackStory with the American History Guys Weekly Episodes series | 54:00

For many Americans, the storyline that played out on August 9th in Ferguson, Mo. — when an unarmed black teenager was fatally shot by a white police officer — is not a new one. But the sustained protests that followed, in which Ferguson police used military equipment to suppress peaceful protests, have generated a new round of questioning about local police’s role in their communities.

On this episode, BackStory looks at the history of policing in America, and how the police forces we’re familiar with today begin to take shape - and we'll consider what happens when the police don’t protect those they serve.

Police-blurb-photo-300x239_small For many Americans, the storyline that played out on August 9th in Ferguson, Mo. — when an unarmed black teenager was fatally shot by a white police officer — is not a new one. But the sustained protests that followed, in which Ferguson police used military equipment to suppress peaceful protests, have generated a new round of questioning about local police’s role in their communities. On this episode, BackStory looks at the history of policing in America, and how the police forces we’re familiar with today begin to take shape - and we'll consider what happens when the police don’t protect those they serve.

Stories from the NYPD

From jrudolph group | 59:45

An audio history of the New York Police Department

180pxnewyorkcitypolicedepartmentemblem Archival recordings and recent interviews are woven together in this hour-long documentary that tells the story of the New York Police Department from the 1940s to the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. From Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia's famous, "sock 'em in the jaw," speech to new police officers in 1942, to first-hand accounts of a 1964 Harlem riot in which the police fired thousands of rounds of live ammunition, to the gripping story of police officers running for their lives after the collapse of the World Trade Center towers, this program opens a window into the NYPD's fascinating history and the complex relationship between the police and the citizens of New York . With a score that includes music from cop shows like "Car 54 Where Are You" and clips from films including "Shaft" and "Serpico,? this program is a compelling examination of the one of the world's leading leading law enforcement organizations before and after 9/11. Among the topics covered - corruption scandals, struggles by police officers to win union representation, and conflicts between the police and New York's African-American and immigrant communities. You'll hear the voices of cops over the decades - emotional, colorful and controversial - along with their critics, their supporters, and scholars who have studied the NYPD. "Stories from the NYPD" is the latest in a series of historical radio documentaries about New York City by award-winning independent producer John Rudolph. Earlier programs (produced with WNYC, New York Public Radio) focused on New York City's waterfront; the career of the late Daniel Patrick Moynihan; and the '60s civil rights movement in New York.

Return of the Neighborhood Beat Cop

From Ben Markus | 05:09

The story of how beat cops cleaned up one of the most notorious housing projects in the nation

3472_small In response to rising crime rates, police departments nationwide are going back to basics, combining traditional patrol methods with an earlier "beat cop" approach. In Sacramento's Phoenix Park housing project the police faced quite a challenge. Even though the neighborhood was mired by gangs and drugs, they made an immediate, and lasting, impact on the shockingly violent project.

How Homelessness Became a Crime

From Making Contact | 29:00

So-called ‘quality of life’ policing may temporarily decrease crime, but it has harsh consequences for innocent people caught up in the frenzy of arrests. If it’s illegal to be on a city’s sidewalks, parks and plazas, where else can people go?

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Former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani made so-called ‘quality of life’ policing a worldwide trend. And while it may have temporarily decreased crime, there are harsh consequences for the thousands of innocent people caught up in the frenzy of arrests.  On this edition, the criminalization of homelessness.  If it’s illegal to be on a city’s sidewalks, parks and plazas, where else can people go?

 

Featuring:

Neil Smith, Center for Graduate Studies at the City University of New York Geography and Urbanism professor; Carlton Berkeley, Former NYPD Detective and author of ‘What to do if Stopped by the Police’; Genghis Kallid Muhammad, Gene Rice, Elise Lowe, Picture the Homeless members; Protestors opposing New York’s disorderly conduct law;  Melvin Williams, Coalition for the Homeless volunteer; Rob Robinson, National Campaign to Restore housing Rights organizer; Barbara Daughtery, homeless New Yorker; Mark Schuylen, former urban planner; Samuel Warber, street musician; Andy Blue, ‘Sidewalks are for People” campaign organizer; George Gascon, San Francisco Police Chief; John Avalos, San Francisco Supervisor; Jen Vandergriff, San Francisco resident; Jason Lean, homeless San Franciscan; Paul Boden, Western Regional Advocacy Project organizer

Producer/Host: Andrew Stelzer

Producer: Kyung Jin Lee

Producer/Online Editor: Pauline Bartolone

Contributing Producer: Sam Lewis

Executive Director: Lisa Rudman

Associate Director: Khanh Pham

Community Engagement and Volunteer Coordinator: Karl Jagbandhansingh

Station Relations: Daphne Young

Life of the Law (Series)

Produced by Life of the Law

Most recent piece in this series:

Life of the Law Episode #61: Outside the Womb

From Life of the Law | Part of the Life of the Law series | 19:32

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Couples who want babies but can’t have them naturally are increasingly turning to surrogacy instead of adoption. And in many countries, the business of providing surrogates is big business. Thailand was a popular destination until things went sideways last summer. Earlier this year, the new military led government banned commercial surrogacy for international couples. Thailand—as one legislator put it—does not want to be thought of as the “womb of Asia.” But the decision has left some families on the wrong side of the law. Bud Lake and his husband, Manuel Santos are two of the unlucky few. Their baby, six-month-old Carmen, was born in Thailand via surrogacy six months ago.

“We’re stranded here in Thailand,” says Lake, whose surrogate has reneged on her contract and is now demanding that the baby be returned to her. And according to Thai law, the baby belongs to her—leaving Bud, Manuel, Carmen and their son Alvaro in limbo. Alvaro was born via a Thai surrogate two years ago.

“We’re having problems with our jobs and financially, and all this is her fault. We’ve done nothing wrong here,” says Lake. “We’ve done everything by the book, we had an agreement, we commissioned a surrogacy and she agreed to be a surrogate. She received the monthly payments. She’s the one who changed her mind.”

And because she has changed her mind, Santos says, they’re now taking precautions to make sure Carmen isn’t taken from them.

“It was the lawyer’s idea we should move constantly so she doesn’t have to know where we live.  Because if she knows where we live she can go at one point to police and ask for the baby. She has all the rights now so she can take the baby,” says Santos.

Carmen has no passport or the papers required to leave the country. And even though the US embassy has issued a consular report of birth abroad, Lake says, officials there say they can do no more. He says they were close to getting the paperwork—the surrogate signed the consent form that allowed Lake and Santos to take her from the hospital and they put Lake’s name on the birth certificate. But then the surrogate failed to show up for the last meeting at the embassy to sign the last bit of paper. So even though Lake is Carmen’s biological father-and even though her birth certificate says he’s the father—the family is stuck.

Some background now. When Carmen was conceived almost a year and a half ago–with Lake’s sperm and the egg of a donor—commercial surrogacy was booming in Thailand. Regulations of the industry were lax, if non-existent. Couples, both gay and straight, came here from all over the world to have babies at a fraction of the cost—and hassle—than in the handful of other countries like the US where commercial surrogacy is legal. Then came the case of Baby Gammy.

An Australian couple—a straight couple—commissioned twins from a Thai surrogate but balked when the boy turned out to have Down Syndrome. They took Gammy’s healthy twin sister home but left Gammy behind with his surrogate mom who was happy to keep him. The Thai media hit the story hard and people started poking around the dark corners of the business. It wasn’t long before they found an even more sensational story about a 26-year-old Japanese Johnny Appleseed who had at least 16 babies born to different Thai surrogates.

Mariam Kukunashvili runs Global Life IVF Clinics and Surrogacy Centers in more than six countries. Her company was involved in two of the surrogacies with the Japanese man. She wishes it hadn’t been.

“It’s very hard to say what was his intention. When our representative asked him, he said he wanted babies to win elections. I assumed this was a joke,” Kununashvili says. “Then we asked again, and his answer was more philosophical. ‘It’s the best thing in the world to make as many babies as possible and leave as many as possible after death.’”

When the man told the agency he wanted 15-20 babies a year, the agency cut ties with the man.  But the damage was done. Baby Gammy and the Japanese Johnny Appleseed were the tipping point for Thai authorities embarrassed about what Thai media called the “rent-a-womb” industry. So the new military government decided to ban commercial surrogacy and fast-tracked a law to do so through the military appointed interim legislature.

The law was approved in early 2015. No more commercial surrogacy and no more surrogacy for foreigners. But there was supposed to be a grace period for those who already had babies on the way. And that’s worked for most, but not for Lake and Santos.

“We had bad luck because all the surrogates are collaborating and are very nice,” says Santos. “They are friends on Facebook with surrogates, all the people we know, have a very good relationship, and I don’t know why we have this bad luck with ours.”

The surrogate, Patidta Kusongsaang, says she was duped. She took her story to the Thai media in March, with the help and guidance from a self-appointed guardian angel, Verutai Maneenuchanert who is a legal advisor to the Thai Senate. Speaking through an interpreter, Kusongsaang says she couldn’t read her contract which she claims was only in English. Then she got cold feet when she discovered that Lake and Santos were gay.

“First of all, they are not natural parents in Thai society. They are same sex, not like male and female that can take care of babies,” says Kusongsaang. “Second thing is, when I tried to contact them to visit the baby, they didn’t want to talk to me. And the third thing is, I was begging them to see the baby but they didn’t allow me to see her. They treated me very badly and said I have no right to see the baby.”

But Kusongsaang seems heavily coached by her advisor who often interrupts and interjects as Kusongsaang talks. And after one such exchange Kusongsaang came up with another reason for wanting to keep Carmen. “I worry if the baby goes with these parents, what will happen to her. On the news it says people sell baby parts or take stem cells to sell in the market. So I’m afraid many things could happen,” says Kusongsaang.

But when she talks about what it felt like being pregnant, there’s no coaching from the advisor. Kusongsaang’s voice cracks as she struggles not to cry.

“The relationship between the mother and the baby I carried for nine months,” she says, “even if it wasn’t my egg or sperm, was very special for me. We ate the same things, drank the same things, breathed the same air, and that relationship made me very, very happy.”

The advisor, Verutai Maneenuchanert says the commercial surrogacy business was wrong from the get go. She calls it human trafficking and calls Kusongsaang a victim even though she willingly entered into a contract and got paid well by local standards. Surrogates got about  $15,000  for carrying babies to term.

It seems as if everyone is a victim in this story: The commissioning parents, the surrogate mother and the baby, too. Maneenuchanert disagrees.  “I don’t feel sad for them,” she says. “Patidta is the only victim here, because they don’t allow her to see the baby. They see the baby as a product that comes from the supermarket. They’re only sad because their product has been damaged. And now they’re trying to intimidate her, tell her she’ll end up in prison if she doesn’t honor her contract”

Bud Lake and Manuel Santos deny all of this. They’re getting ready to fight for Carmen the only place they can—in a Thai court. They hope to show that they’re better parents to Carmen than Kusongsaang would be, more financially and emotionally stable.  Lake gives the example of a post on Kusongsaang’s Facebook page where she’s cradling a pistol.  He says he’s been encouraged by the meetings he’s held with Thai Social Services who seem sympathetic. Still, Lake says all the lawyers they’ve talked to say their chances of winning in a Thai court are less than ten percent.

“The reason they gave us such a low percentage is because, despite the fact there are temporary provisions in the new law that say commission intended parents can ask for their parental rights to be recognized in court, unfortunately it’s worded as husband and wife,” he says.

As for Lake and Santos, they’re not husband and wife. Lake thinks the law was written to deliberately exclude gay couples.  And he seems to be on to something there. Dr. Arkom Pradidsuwan is with the Thai Medical Council in the Ministry of Public Health.

“Thai law does not endorse same sex pair. And Thai law, legal couple is husband and wife, man and woman,” says Pradidsuwan. He says baby Carmen’s legal status belongs to Patidta Kusongsaang.

Santos says that’s not fair, because he and Lake are legally married, a fact recognized by many other countries. “We are married in the states, in Spain, in Europe and I respect the law, but they have to understand that everything changed in our (world) when all these things about surrogacy and the Japanese man and Gammy, but we don’t have anything to do with that,” says Santos.

And the thing that gets lost here—because of the Baby Gammy case and that of the Japanese Johnny Appleseed too—is that commercial surrogacy in Thailand has worked for many people, people who otherwise wouldn’t have been able to have children or afford to hire a surrogate. And it has worked for many surrogates too. Better regulation here—any regulation here—might have helped prevent both the Baby Gammy case and that of the Japanese Johnny Appleseed. But instead of regulation there’s now prohibition.

And where does that leave Bud Lake and Manuel Santos? Waiting. Lake says the embassy has told him their hands are pretty much tied.

“They’ve advised us that we need to follow judicial channels,” says Lake. “They’ve given us advice, they’ve lent an ear to listen, but from what they’ve told us, there’s really not much that they can do, that we have to follow the legal channels, that that’s our only option.”

An official at the State Department confirmed this in an email:  “U.S. citizens in Thailand are subject to Thailand law. Pursuant to U.S. law, the Department cannot issue passports to minor children without the consent of the legal parent/s or guardian/s.”

Mariam Kukunashvili—whose company handled this surrogacy, says she tried repeatedly to help Lake and Santos reach some sort of agreement with Kusongsaang.  But she says the couple wouldn’t listen. So now she’s given up. Lake and Santos say she wasn’t much help at all.

Now the surrogate, Patidta Kusongsaang, and her advisor have gone to the police and formally accused Lake of child abduction. He recently went to hear the charges but left Carmen at home just in case.

Lake and Santos say they’ll do everything they can to keep her. There’s no way, Santos says that they’re going home without Carmen.

“No, no no,” he says softly, shaking his head. “Because she’s our daughter. By heart and genetically. If we have to move here and leave our families and work, we will do. But we will not leave Carmen. Because is not her daughter, is our daughter” Bud Lake and Manuel Santos thought they’d be bringing their daughter home six months ago, shortly after she was born in January. Back then, they were excited at the thought of Carmen meeting the family especially Santos’ ailing grandmother, Carmen’s namesake.

She passed away a few weeks ago.

Breaking Through the Blue Wall of Silence

From Making Contact | Part of the Making Contact series | 28:56

Who gets to decide when an officer has done something wrong—the police chief or the people? Cities across the country are creating civilian oversight agencies which try to make local police and sheriffs accountable to the people.

Episode_pic_for__32-09_small Who polices the police? Do you or your neighbors have any say in the way your town’s cops and sheriffs do business? For more than 35 years, cities around the country have been creating civilian oversight agencies - trying to make local police and sheriffs accountable to the communities they serve. On this edition, producer Andrew Stelzer takes a look at the ongoing battle between the people and the police - and the debate over who gets to decide when an officer has done something wrong.

Featuring:
Barbara Attard, civilian oversight consultant, former San Francisco Office of Citizen Complaints investigator and former Berkeley Police Review Commission Director; Marcel Diallo, artist and victim of police harassment; Rashidah Grinage, PUEBLO Executive Director; Jason Wechter, San Francisco Office of Citizen Complaints investigator; Reginald Lyles, BART consultant and former Berkeley Police Officer; Gary Gee, BART Police Chief; Jesse Sekhon, BART Police Officers Association President; Quintin Mecke, California State Assemblyman Tom Ammiano’s Communications Director; Greg Kaufory, attorney; Omar Osirus, Jan, and Bo, protestors; Daniel Buford, Allen Temple Baptist Church Reverend; Joyce Hicks, San Francisco Office of Citizen Complaints Director and former Oakland’s Citizens Police Review Board Director; Patrick Cacares, Oakland Citizens Police Review Board acting director; Paulette Hogan, tasered Oakland resident who filed complaint with Internal Affairs; Chris Shannon, Oakland Police Lieutenant; Cephus Johnson, Oscar Grant’s uncle; Mark Kroeker, Portland Police Chief.


Program #32-09 - Begin date: 08/12/09. End date: 02/12/09.

Please call us if you carry us - 510-251-1332 and we will list your station on our website. If you excerpt, please credit early and often.

Oscar Grant and Police Accountability

From Making Contact | Part of the Making Contact series | 29:00

We take a look at the Police killing of Oscar Grant in Oakland, and the debate over who gets to decide when an officer has done something wrong.

I_am_oscar_grant_small Who polices the police? Do you or your neighbors have any say in the way your town’s cops and sheriffs do business? For more than 35 years, cities around the country have been creating civilian oversight agencies - trying to make local police and sheriffs accountable to the communities they serve.

On this edition we take a look at the Police killing of Oscar Grant in Oakland, and the debate over who gets to decide when an officer has done something wrong.

Featuring:
Barbara Attard, civilian oversight consultant, former San Francisco Office of Citizen Complaints investigator and former Berkeley Police Review Commission Director; Marcel Diallo, artist and victim of police harassment; Rashidah Grinage, PUEBLO Executive Director; Jason Wechter, National Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement Board Member; Reginald Lyles, BART consultant and former Berkeley Police Officer; Gary Gee, BART Police Chief; Jesse Sekhon, BART Police Officers Association President; Quintin Mecke, California State Assemblyman Tom Ammiano’s Communications Director; Greg Kaufory, attorney; Omar Osirus, Jan, and Bo, protestors; Daniel Buford, Allen Temple Baptist Church Reverend; Joyce Hicks, San Francisco Office of Citizen Complaints Director and former Oakland’s Citizens Police Review Board Director; Patrick Cacares, Oakland Citizens Police Review Board acting director; Paulette Hogan, tasered Oakland resident who filed complaint with Internal Affairs; Chris Shannon, Oakland Police Lieutenant; Cephus Johnson, Oscar Grant’s uncle; Mark Kroeker, Portland Police Chief;

The 1992 LA Rebellion: Twenty Years Later

From Dred-Scott Keyes | 01:00:13

The Cutting Edge looks at the causes and aftermath of the 1992 L.A. rebellion.

La-riot2_small The Cutting Edge looks at the  causes and aftermath of the 1992 L.A. rebellion through a sound collage of interviews and news reports.

Interrogators Without Pliers

From Matt Thompson | 27:31

Why torture doesn't work. How to trick the enemy into revealing secrets. Lessons from the Master Interrogator of the Luftwaffe. The British Police use of empathy as a weapon. With Ali Soufan, ex FBI special agent and interrogator.

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 The Chinese strategist and philospher Sun Tzu wrote in 'The Art of War' that 'If you know others and know yourself you will win a hundred battles.'  Which is obviously good advice but finding out about the 'other' is not straightforward.  What if they don't want to talk and share their secrets with you? 

Much of the debate about the interrogation of suspects in America's War on Terror has been about whether the methods used, such as waterboarding, could be described as torture.  In this programme Julian Putkowski sets aside all moral questions and instead thinks about efficiency.  What is the most effective way to extract high quality information out of the enemy, the other.

If we are civil to our captives might we get them to cooperate?  What if we could get as much – or even more – information in exchange for a lot less pain?

Julian's unlikey role model is the Master Interrogator of the Luftwaffe Hanns Scharff. He gently extracted information from downed US fighter pilots by being friendly and never appearing to show interest when a new piece of the mosaic fell into place. Scharff summed it up as  'a display of information and persuasion appealing to common sense'.

We do not know for sure where the Scharff technique came from originally.   But it may have been from a colourful German fighter ace, Franz von Werra.  He had been downed and captured by the British and interrogated by the RAF. He had been expecting rough handling but found his captors were rather genial chaps and harsh treatment was the exception to the rule. He later escaped and made it back to Germany. One of his first trips was to Dulag Luft where he sat in on interrogations.  He was horrified at how superficial, even farcical the interrogations were. He said: 'I would rather be interrogated by half a dozen German inquisitors than 1 RAF expert.'  His recommendations were personally approved by Hermann Goering.

Julian interviews: Dr Gavin Oxburgh, at the University of Teeside, UK who is  an international expert on police questioning.

Ali Soufan, an FBI special agent and author of 'The Black Banners.'

Claudius Scharff, Hanns son, who tells us about trips to the zoo and shows us a fascinating 'visitor's book' Hanns got the POW's to sign.

 

 

 

 

Measured by Mistakes: The Reality and Representation of Policing

From WFHB | Part of the Interchange series | 57:53

Tonight’s program seeks to shine a light first on what’s been called the “militarization” of police across the country due to something like a federal “give away” program where state and local forces are made the beneficiaries of excess military production (the "1033 Program"). We’ll also try to detach that reality from the “on the ground” aspects of being a police officer in a community. And finally, I’ll ask our guests to answer one question: Which should we want, officers of the law or officers of the peace?

Badge-wo-tagline_small Tonight’s program seeks to shine a light first on what’s been called the “militarization” of police across the country due to something like a federal “give away” program where state and local forces are made the beneficiaries of excess military production (the "1033 Program"). We’ll also try to detach that reality from the “on the ground” aspects of being a police officer in a community. And finally, I’ll ask our guests to answer one question: Which should we want, officers of the law or officers of the peace?

Joining us tonight are Monroe County Sheriff James Kennedy who has held that elected office since 2007, and Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater Greg Jeffers whose research focuses on police-citizen interactions and resident’s perceptions of the police.

Reveal for May 2015

From Reveal | 58:59

Program audio arrives May 7 for air window open May 9-June 12, 2015.

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In this episode, 
Reveal continues its in-depth look at law and disorder:

  • we expose some of the tensions between police and the communities they serve, and how video cameras are dramatically changing the public's relationship with law enforcement. 
  • In Washington, D.C., we examine why there’s been a huge increase in the number of people charged with assaulting a police officer. We team up with WAMU and American University to examine three years of court cases, and find that the people being charged are the ones who normally end up in the hospital. 
  • We also explore what happens when police and communities keep an eye on each other. Officers patrol the streets watching for crime, but now citizens are using video cameras to monitor police. We tag along with cop watchers in Texas.
  • And citizens aren’t the only ones getting into the game, we investigate the consequences of private companies storing evidence captured by cop body cams.
  • Finally, we look back and talk to the man who some say pioneered citizen journalism when he recorded the Los Angeles police beating of Rodney King in 1991.

 

DIGITAL ASSETS
Access digital assets by CLICKING HERE. ALL assets except for specifically marked social media copy are embargoed until 12:01amPT/3:01amET, Saturday, May 9. Help or questions? Contact Meghann Farnsworth at mfarnsworth-at-cironline-dot.org

NEW: Reveal Host Promos

 script promos for station hosts to read ( :20 of copy)

LEAD STORY >>

Coming up on REVEAL…In Washington D.C., being charged with “Assaulting a Police Officer” can mean something else entirely. A joint investigation with WAMU and American University examined three years of court cases to find out what happens in D.C. when someone is charged with 'assaulting a police officer.' The result is often more than an arrest: the suspect frequently lands in the hospital.That story and much more coming up on REVEAL from The Center for Investigative Reporting and PRX, here on ___________.

COP WATCH (B1) >>

Coming up on REVEAL…What happens when police and communities keep an eye on each other? Officers patrol the streets watching for crime, but now citizens are using video cameras to monitor police. The Reveal team tags along with cop watchers in Texas.That story and much more coming up on REVEAL, from The Center for Investigative Reporting and PRX, here on ___________.

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GEORGE HOLLIDAY (C2) >>

Coming up on REVEAL…24 years ago, one man found himself recording a disturbing event that would play over and over on newscasts across the country. Reveal talks to the man who some say pioneered citizen journalism when he caught the Los Angeles police beating of Rodney King in 1991. That story and much more coming up on REVEAL, from The Center for Investigative Reporting and PRX, here on ___________.

The Reason in the Riot

From BackStory with the American History Guys | Part of the BackStory with the American History Guys: Favorites series | 10:24

Brian Balogh speaks with former Senator Fred Harris about the commission convened by President Lyndon Johnson in the dark days of the 1967 Detroit riots, and their surprising conclusions about police and protesters

Police-blurb-photo-300x239_small Brian Balogh speaks with former Senator Fred Harris about the commission convened by President Lyndon Johnson in the dark days of the 1967 Detroit riots, and their surprising conclusions about police and protesters

Bodily Safety: Ta-Nehisi Coates on Police Shootings

From Making Contact | Part of the Making Contact series | 29:00

Ta-Nehisi Coates' friend from Howard University was shot and killed by police in Virginia back in 2000. Written in the form of a letter to his own teenage son, Coates’ book "Between the World and Me" puts police shootings in a wider context. Ta-Nehisi Coates spoke as part of the Lannan Foundation's Pursuit of Cultural Freedom Series.

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When journalist Ta-Nehisi Coates set out to write about police killings he went to visit Mable Jones. Back in 2000, Jones’ son, a friend of Coates from their time at Howard University, was shot and killed by police in Virginia. He was twenty five years old. Written in the form of a letter to his own teenage son, Coates’ book "Between the World and Me" puts police shootings in a wider context.

Ta-Nehisi Coates spoke as part of the Lannan Foundation's Pursuit of Cultural Freedom Series.